{UPSC 2023} GS Paper 1 Answerkey with Explanation

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Which ruler of medieval Gujarat surrendered Diu to Portuguese? The ruler of medieval Gujarat who surrendered Diu to the Portuguese was Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate. Diu, a strategically located island and port, was under the control of the Gujarat Sultanate at that time. In 1535, Sultan Bahadur Shah faced a military confrontation with the Portuguese, led by … Read More

[Explained] Solar Energy – Thermal Solar Power and Solar Photovoltaic

Sansar LochanIndian EconomyLeave a Comment

Solar energy is an important source of non-conventional energy. Sun is the main source of energy for all the living beings. Man is using the solar energy in different ways since ancient times. It is cheap, widely available, renewable, inexhaustible, eco-friendly and sustainable source of energy. It is now being used from many purposes such as, water heating, space heating, … Read More

States Reorganisation Act, 1956 : Rationale and Features

Sansar LochanConstitution of India1 Comment


Due to accession of Princely States and due to the then haphazard forms of British India territories, need was felt later to re-organise the entire country in a more reasonable and popularly acceptable states and union territories. In order to address this need, a State Reorganisation Committee was constituted in December 1953, with Justice Fazl Ali, K.M. Panikkar and Hridayanath … Read More

Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features

Sansar LochanHistory of India75 Comments

Town planning is the unique feature of Indus valley civilization. Their town planning proves that they lived a highly civilized and developed life. Indus people were the first to build planned cities with scientific drainage system. The Indus cities were built on an uniform plan. Town planning was amazing in nature. A few cities have citadels to the West built … Read More

Full Details about First General Elections in India (1951-52)

Sansar LochanConstitution of IndiaLeave a Comment


First General Elections in India (1951-52) India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic with the adoption of Constitution on 26th January, 1950. General elections to the first Lok Sabha as well as state assemblies were held from October 1951 to February 1952, on the basis of universal adult franchise. Thus India, with a far greater population than that of the USA, … Read More

The Period of the Moderates and the Extremists 1885-1920

Sansar LochanHistory of IndiaLeave a Comment

The Period of the Moderates 1885-1905 From 1885 to 1905 the Indian National Congress was led by Dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozshah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji, Anandacharalu, Surendranath Banerjee, Gopal Krishna Gokhle etc. They expressed loyalty to the British and believed in the British benevolence. They intended to pressurize the British Government through Prayers, Petitions and Protests. They organized public meetings, submitted memorandums … Read More

Important Characteristic Features of Chalukyan Architecture

Sansar LochanCulture2 Comments

The Chalukyas of Badami have made marvelous contributions to Indian Art and Architecture. Building of Stambha Mandapa (Navaranga) and Sukhanasi along with the Garbhagriha was a unique contribution of the Chalukyas. They built many temples following the Nagara or North Indian Style and Dravida or South Indian style. They built their temples using red sandstone. They experimented many things in … Read More