{UPSC 2023} GS Paper 1 Answerkey with Explanation

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Which ruler of medieval Gujarat surrendered Diu to Portuguese?

The ruler of medieval Gujarat who surrendered Diu to the Portuguese was Sultan Bahadur Shah of the Gujarat Sultanate. Diu, a strategically located island and port, was under the control of the Gujarat Sultanate at that time. In 1535, Sultan Bahadur Shah faced a military confrontation with the Portuguese, led by the Viceroy of Portuguese India, Nuno da Cunha.

After facing a series of defeats and being besieged in Diu by the Portuguese forces, Sultan Bahadur Shah ultimately surrendered in 1538. This surrender marked the beginning of Portuguese control over Diu, which remained under Portuguese rule until it was incorporated into the Indian territory after India’s independence in 1947.

By which Act was the Governor General of Bengal designated as the Governor General of India?

The Act by which the Governor General of Bengal was designated as the Governor General of India was the Government of India Act 1833. The Act was enacted by the British Parliament and is commonly known as the Charter Act of 1833.

Under the Government of India Act 1833, the Governor General of Bengal was given the new title of Governor General of India. This Act expanded the authority and jurisdiction of the Governor General beyond Bengal and established a central government for British India. The Act also introduced several reforms in the administration of India, including the creation of a Legislative Council and the appointment of a Law Member in the Governor General’s Council.

The designation of the Governor General as the Governor General of India under the Government of India Act 1833 marked an important step in the evolution of British rule in India, establishing a more centralized governance structure for the British territories on the subcontinent.

What does “Due Process of Law” mean?

Equality before Law. Due process requires that individuals are treated equally and without discrimination based on factors such as race, religion, gender, or socioeconomic status.

“Due Process of Law” is a legal principle that ensures fair treatment and procedural safeguards in legal proceedings. It is a fundamental concept that guarantees that individuals are treated justly and are provided with certain rights and protections when facing the legal system.

In India, which Constitutional Amendment was widely believed to be enacted to overcome the judicial interpretation of the Fundamental Rights?

The Constitutional Amendment widely believed to have been enacted in India to overcome the judicial interpretation of the Fundamental Rights is the 42nd Amendment Act of 1976. The 42nd Amendment Act, also known as the Mini Constitution or the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, was introduced during the period of the emergency declared in India from 1975 to 1977.

Which ruler of Vijayanagara Empire constructed a large “dam across Tungabhadra River” and a canal-cum-aqueduct several kilometres long from the river to the capital city?

The ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire who constructed a large dam across the Tungabhadra River and a canal-cum-aqueduct to the capital city was Krishnadevaraya (Devaraya I). Krishnadevaraya was one of the most celebrated kings of the Vijayanagara Empire, reigning from 1509 to 1529.

“Souls are not only the property of animal and plant life, but also of rocks, running water and many other natural objects not looked on as living by other religious sects.” The above statement reflects one of the core beliefs of which one of the following religious sects of ancient India?

The above statement reflects one of the core beliefs of Jainism, an ancient religious sect of India. Jainism teaches the concept of “Jiva,” which refers to the eternal soul or consciousness that exists in all living beings. However, Jainism goes beyond considering only animals and plants as possessing souls. According to Jain philosophy, souls are believed to exist not only in animal and plant life but also in inanimate objects such as rocks, running water, and various other natural entities. This belief reflects the Jain concept of “Anekantavada” or “Multiplicity of Views,” which acknowledges the interconnectedness and spiritual essence present in all forms of existence, including non-living objects.

Which one of the following explains the practice of “Vattakirutal” as mentioned in Sangam poems?

It refers to a ritual suicide or self-sacrifice committed by a defeated king.

In the context of ancient Tamil literature and historical accounts, Vattakirutal was a practice in which a vanquished or defeated king, particularly during times of war or conflict, would voluntarily starve himself to death as a form of ritualistic self-sacrifice. This act was seen as a way for the king to maintain his honor and dignity in the face of defeat rather than being captured or humiliated by the enemy.

The act of Vattakirutal was considered a solemn and honorable choice, demonstrating the king’s loyalty, courage, and commitment to his kingdom and people. It was seen as an act of sacrifice and devotion to preserve the prestige and reputation of the ruling dynasty.

With reference to ancient South India, Korkai, Poompuhar and Muchiri were well known as?


Korkai, Poompuhar, and Muchiri were well-known ancient port cities in South India.

  1. Korkai: Korkai was an important port city located in present-day Tamil Nadu. It was the capital of the Early Pandyan Kingdom and served as a thriving maritime center during ancient times. Korkai was known for its trade links with other regions, including the Roman Empire. It was a significant center for pearl fishing and was renowned for its pearls.
  2. Poompuhar (also known as Kaveripattinam): Poompuhar, located on the banks of the River Kaveri in Tamil Nadu, was another prominent port city in ancient South India. It was the capital of the Chola dynasty during the Sangam period (3rd century BCE to 3rd century CE). Poompuhar was a bustling trade hub and played a vital role in maritime trade with various kingdoms and civilizations, including the Roman Empire and Southeast Asia.
  3. Muchiri (also known as Musiri): Muchiri was a significant port city in ancient Tamilakam, located in present-day Tamil Nadu. It was a bustling center of trade and maritime activities during the Sangam period. Muchiri had connections with various trading partners, including the Roman Empire.

These port cities played a crucial role in facilitating trade, cultural exchange, and maritime activities in ancient South India. They were hubs of economic, political, and cultural activities, serving as gateways for trade between South India and other regions. The archaeological remains and literary references provide valuable insights into the historical significance of these ancient port cities.

In which one of the following regions was Dhanyakataka, which flourished as a prominent Buddhist centre under the Manasanghikas, located?

Dhanyakataka, which flourished as a prominent Buddhist center under the Manasanghikas, was located in the region of present-day Amaravati, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India.

Dhanyakataka, also known as Dharanikota, was a significant Buddhist site during ancient times. It was a thriving center of Buddhist learning and played a vital role in the spread of Buddhism in South India. The Manasanghika sect, a Buddhist monastic community, was particularly influential in Dhanyakataka.

The region of Amaravati, including Dhanyakataka, is renowned for its rich Buddhist heritage and monumental Buddhist structures. The remains of ancient stupas, monasteries, and sculptures found in the area provide insights into the vibrant Buddhist culture that flourished there during ancient times.

Which of the following organisms perform waggle dance for others of their kin to indicate the direction and the distance to a source of their food?

The organisms that perform a waggle dance to communicate the direction and distance to a food source are honeybees. Honeybees, particularly the species Apis mellifera, use this intricate dance as a form of communication within their hive. The waggle dance involves specific movements and patterns performed by worker bees to convey information about the location of nectar or pollen-rich food sources.

During the waggle dance, a honeybee will move in a figure-eight pattern, waggling its abdomen while vibrating its wings. The direction of the waggle run, relative to the vertical position of the sun, indicates the direction in which the food source can be found. The duration of the waggle run and the intensity of the waggle dance convey information about the distance to the food source, with longer runs indicating greater distances.

By observing and decoding the waggle dance, other worker bees in the hive can learn the location of the food source and navigate to it effectively. The waggle dance is a fascinating example of the sophisticated communication and organizational abilities of honeybees.

“Invasive Species Specialist Group” (that develops Global Invasive Species Database) belongs to which one of the following organizations?

IUCN : The “Invasive Species Specialist Group” (ISSG), which develops the Global Invasive Species Database, belongs to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

The IUCN is a global organization dedicated to the conservation of nature and sustainable use of natural resources. It is composed of various specialist groups and commissions that focus on different aspects of conservation. The ISSG is one such specialist group under the IUCN.

The ISSG works to address issues related to invasive species, which are non-native species that can cause harm to ecosystems, biodiversity, and human livelihoods. They develop and maintain the Global Invasive Species Database, which serves as a comprehensive resource on invasive species worldwide. The database provides information on invasive species, their impacts, and management strategies.

By being part of the IUCN, the ISSG collaborates with other organizations, governments, and experts to promote the understanding and management of invasive species, raise awareness, and develop strategies to mitigate their negative effects on ecosystems and biodiversity.

Which one of the following activities of RBI is considered to be part of “sterilization”?

In the context of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the activity of Open Market Operations (OMO) is considered to be part of “sterilization.”

Sterilization is a monetary policy tool used by central banks, including the RBI, to manage liquidity in the economy and stabilize the money supply. When the RBI conducts OMO, it involves buying or selling government securities (bonds) in the open market.

If the RBI purchases government securities through OMO, it injects liquidity into the banking system, increasing the money supply. To prevent any potential inflationary pressures resulting from excessive liquidity, the RBI may engage in sterilization measures. Sterilization is the process of offsetting the impact of the injected liquidity by absorbing it from the market.

Which one of the following best describes the concept of ‘Small Farmer Large Field’?

The concept of ‘Small Farmer Large Field’ refers to a situation where small-scale farmers possess relatively small land holdings but are responsible for cultivating and managing large areas of land. This concept often arises in the context of agriculture, particularly in regions where land resources are limited, and population pressures are high.

In this scenario, individual farmers may own or have access to small plots of land, which are typically insufficient to support their livelihoods adequately. As a result, they are compelled to cultivate or lease additional land from various sources, such as absentee landowners, government-owned land, or communal land.

Which one of the following is a part of Congo Basin?


The Congo Basin is a vast region located in Central Africa, and it encompasses multiple countries. The countries that are part of the Congo Basin include:

  1. Democratic Republic of the Congo: The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is the largest country within the Congo Basin and contains the majority of its land area.
  2. Republic of the Congo: The Republic of the Congo, often referred to as Congo-Brazzaville, is located to the west of the DRC and shares a border with it. It is also part of the Congo Basin.
  3. Central African Republic: The Central African Republic (CAR) is situated to the north of the DRC and is part of the Congo Basin as well.
  4. Cameroon: Cameroon, located to the east of Nigeria, has a portion of its territory within the Congo Basin.
  5. Equatorial Guinea: Equatorial Guinea, a small country on the west coast of Central Africa, has parts of its mainland within the Congo Basin.
  6. Gabon: Gabon, located along the west coast of Central Africa, is almost entirely covered by the Congo Basin.
  7. Republic of South Sudan: The southern region of South Sudan, bordering the DRC, is considered to be part of the Congo Basin.

About three-fourths of world’s cobalt, a metal required for the manufacture of batteries for electric motor vehicles, is produced by?

About three-fourths of the world’s cobalt production comes from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The DRC is a major global producer of cobalt, accounting for a significant portion of the global supply. Cobalt is a critical metal used in the manufacturing of batteries for electric vehicles and various other electronic devices. The DRC’s rich deposits and extensive mining operations make it a key player in the global cobalt market. However, it’s important to note that there are ongoing concerns regarding ethical sourcing and sustainability in the cobalt supply chain in the DRC. Efforts are being made to improve transparency and ensure responsible sourcing practices to address social and environmental challenges associated with cobalt mining in the region.

Ilmenite and rutile, abundantly available in certain coastal tracts of India, are rich sources of which one of the following?

Ilmenite and rutile, which are abundantly available in certain coastal tracts of India, are rich sources of titanium. Titanium is a valuable metallic element known for its strength, corrosion resistance, and lightweight properties. It is widely used in various industries, including aerospace, automotive, construction, and electronics. Titanium dioxide, derived from ilmenite and rutile, is particularly important as a white pigment in paints, coatings, plastics, and other applications.

Which one of the following is the best example of repeated falls in sea level, giving rise to present-day extensive marshland? – Bhitarkanika Mangroves, Marakkanam Salt Pans, Naupada Swamp or Rann of Kutch?

The best example of repeated falls in sea level, giving rise to present-day extensive marshland, among the options provided, is the Rann of Kutch.

The Rann of Kutch, located in the state of Gujarat in western India, is a vast salt marshland characterized by seasonal marshes, salt flats, and shallow wetlands. It is a unique ecosystem that experiences significant fluctuations in sea level due to geological and climatic factors.

The Rann of Kutch has a dynamic history of marine incursions and regressions, with periods of the sea advancing and retreating. These repeated falls in sea level have contributed to the formation of the extensive marshland observed today. During the wet season, the Rann of Kutch gets submerged under water, forming a shallow marshland. In contrast, during the dry season, the water evaporates, leaving behind salt flats and barren land.

In the recent years Chad, Guinea, Mali and Sudan caught the international attention for which one of the following reasons common to all of them?

These countries have all experienced significant political developments through successful coups, which have garnered international attention. It is important to note that other factors, such as the southward expansion of the Sahara Desert, ongoing conflicts, and regional dynamics, also contribute to the complexities in these countries. However, the recent successful coups have had a profound impact on their political landscapes and triggered global concerns about stability, governance, and democratic processes.

With reference to green hydrogen, consider the following statements : 1. It can be used directly as a fuel for internal combustion. 2. It can be blended with natural gas and used as fuel for heat or power generation. 3. It can be used in the hydrogen fuel cell to run vehicles. How many of the above statements are correct?

Out of the three statements, statements 2 and 3 are correct.

Statement 1: It can be used directly as a fuel for internal combustion. This statement is incorrect. Green hydrogen, which is produced using renewable energy sources like solar or wind power, is primarily used as a feedstock or energy carrier rather than being used directly as a fuel for internal combustion engines.

Which one of the following countries has its own Satellite Navigation System? (a) Australia (b) Canada (c) Israel (d) Japan

Japan has its own satellite navigation system called the Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS). It is a regional satellite navigation system designed to provide precise positioning and timing information primarily for Japan and the Asia-Oceania region. The QZSS enhances the accuracy and availability of positioning services in these areas, working in conjunction with other global navigation satellite systems like GPS (United States), GLONASS (Russia), and Galileo (European Union).

Microsatellite DNA’ is used in the case of which one of the following? (a) Studying the relationships among species of fauna (b) Stimulating evolutionary various ‘stem cells’ to transform into diverse functional tissues (c) Promoting clonal propagation of horticultural plants (d) Assessing the efficacy of drugs by conducting series of drug trials in a population

Studying the relationships among species of fauna.

Microsatellite DNA, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), is commonly used in genetic studies, particularly in the field of population genetics and evolutionary biology. Microsatellites are short, repetitive DNA sequences found in the genomes of many organisms. They are highly variable, meaning they can differ in the number of repeats among individuals.

By analyzing microsatellite DNA, researchers can assess the genetic variation within and between populations, infer the relationships among individuals or species, and study patterns of gene flow, genetic diversity, and population structure. This information helps in understanding the evolutionary history, genetic relatedness, and ecological dynamics of different species of fauna.

Therefore, microsatellite DNA analysis is primarily utilized for studying the relationships among species of fauna (animals).

With reference to the Indian History, Alexander Rea, A. H. Longhurst, Robert Sewell, James Burgess and Walter Elliot were. associated with (a) archaeological excavations (b) establishment of English Press in Colonial India (c) establishmnent Princely States (a) construction Colonial India

Among the given options, the correct answer is: (a) Archaeological excavations.

Alexander Rea, A. H. Longhurst, Robert Sewell, James Burgess, and Walter Elliot were associated with archaeological excavations in the context of Indian history. Each of these individuals made significant contributions to the field of archaeology and heritage conservation in India.

Wolbachia method’ is sometimes talked about with reference to which one of the following?

The “Wolbachia method” is sometimes discussed with reference to controlling mosquito-borne diseases. The Wolbachia method involves the use of a naturally occurring bacterium called Wolbachia to control the population of disease-transmitting mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Wolbachia is a bacterium that can infect insects and has the ability to manipulate the reproduction of its host. By introducing Wolbachia into mosquito populations, scientists can disrupt the ability of mosquitoes to transmit diseases like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya. Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes are released into the wild, and when they mate with female mosquitoes without Wolbachia, the resulting eggs do not hatch or produce non-viable offspring. This method aims to reduce the population of disease-carrying mosquitoes over time. The Wolbachia method has gained attention as a potential tool for controlling mosquito-borne diseases and has been tested in several regions worldwide with promising results.

Consider the following countries : 1. Bulgaria 2. Czech Republic 3. Hungary 4. Lithuani 5. Romania 6. Latvia. How many of the above-mentioned countries share a land border with Ukraine?

Answer: 2 countries

The following countries share a land border with Ukraine:

  1. Romania
  2. Hungary
  3. Slovakia
  4. Poland
  5. Belarus
  6. Russia

Which one of the following countries has been suffering from decades of civil strife and food shortages and was in news in the recent past for its very severe famine? (a) Angola (b) Costa Rica (c) Ecuador (d) Somalia

The country that has been suffering from decades of civil strife, food shortages, and was in the news in the recent past for its severe famine is: (d) Somalia. Somalia has faced significant challenges in terms of political instability, armed conflict, and recurring droughts, leading to widespread food shortages and famine conditions. The country has experienced a protracted civil war since the early 1990s, which has severely impacted its governance, infrastructure, and overall stability. These factors, coupled with frequent droughts and limited access to resources, have resulted in recurring humanitarian crises and food insecurity in Somalia.

Aerial metagenomics’ best refers to which one of the following situations? a) Collecting DNA samples from air in a habitat at one go b) Understanding the genetic makeup of avian species of a habitat c) Using air-borne devices to collect from moving blood samples animals d) Sending drones to inaccessible areas to collect plant and animal samples from land surfaces and water bodies.

The term “aerial metagenomics” refers to: (a) Collecting DNA samples from air in a habitat at one go. Aerial metagenomics involves the collection and analysis of genetic material, particularly DNA, from the air in a specific habitat or environment. It aims to capture and study the genetic material present in airborne particles such as microorganisms, pollen, fungal spores, and other biological components. By collecting DNA samples from the air, researchers can gain insights into the biodiversity, microbial composition, and genetic diversity of a particular habitat. Aerial metagenomics can be used to study microbial communities, track the spread of airborne diseases, monitor environmental changes, and assess the overall genetic landscape of an ecosystem. Therefore, option (a) best describes the concept of aerial metagenomics.

Consider the following statements : The ‘Stability and Growth Pact’ of the European Union is a treaty that – 1. limits the levels of the budgetary deficit of the countries of the European Union 2. makes the countries of the European Union to share their infrastructure facilities 3. enables the countries of the European Union to share their technologies

The statements provided regarding the ‘Stability and Growth Pact’ of the European Union are not entirely accurate. The correct description of the Stability and Growth Pact is as follows:

The ‘Stability and Growth Pact’ of the European Union is a treaty that:

  1. Limits the levels of the budgetary deficit and public debt of the countries of the European Union. The Stability and Growth Pact sets specific fiscal rules and targets for EU member states to ensure sound fiscal policies. It aims to promote fiscal discipline, stability, and sustainable economic growth by imposing limits on budget deficits and public debt levels.

Therefore, statement 1 is correct.

However, statements 2 and 3 are incorrect: 2. The Stability and Growth Pact does not involve the sharing of infrastructure facilities among EU countries.

  1. The Stability and Growth Pact does not enable the sharing of technologies among EU countries.

Hence, only statement 1 is accurate regarding the purpose of the Stability and Growth Pact.

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