Policy of Subordinate Isolation (1813-1858)

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In the previous article about Policy of Ring Fence, we discussed the policy of the British with native states up to 1919. Today we will discuss about Policy of Subordinate Isolation. Policy of Subordinate Isolation (1813-1858) Wellesley largely succeeded in making the British the supreme power in India and whatever remained was completed by Marquess of Hastings. After the third … Read More

Policy of Ring Fence (1765-1813)

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Today, we will try to discuss what is the Policy of Ring Fence policy. The relations of the British with Indian states underwent changes at different times because these were based purely on grounds of expediency. The British never lost sight of their Imperial interests. Therefore, their relations with native states were governed by their interests which varied at different … Read More

The Partition of Bengal : 1905

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The Partition of Bengal The partition of Bengal in 1905 was one measure which created deep discontentment among the Indians, The province of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha was divided into two parts. The original province included western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha and the new province included Assam and eastern Bengal. Curzon pleaded that Bengal was too large a province and … Read More

Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures

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Lord Curzon had visited India several times before his appointment as the governor-general of India in 1899. It was said that he knew more about India than any other man living at that time. Besides, he was a determined and industrious man. He, therefore, carried out large number of reform measures. But Curzon failed to understand the genuine problems and … Read More

A Brief Note on Ilbert Bill – 1884

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Sir C.P. Ilbert was the Law member of the executive council of the governor-general. He introduced a bill, popularly known as Ilbert Bill in 1883. Before reading further, I would like to make you read this article :- Lord Ripon. Ilbert Bill In fact, Ripon had desired it with a view to abolishing the distinction between the rights of the … Read More

Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General

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In 1880, Gladstone, the leader of the Liberal Party in Britain formed the government. He deputed Lord Ripon to India to carry out his liberal policy. Besides, the administrative measures of Lord Lytton had injured the sentiments of Indians and their erupted disturbances at several places. Ripon, therefore, attempted to pacify Indian public opinion. He, therefore, abolished some repressive measures … Read More

Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880)

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Lord Lytton was a man of literary tastes but he suffered from two handicaps. One, that he was not acquainted with affairs in India. Second, Disraeli, the Prime Minister of England had deputed him to India with the specific object of pursuing a forward policy against Afghanistan. Thus, Lytton represented a particular viewpoint and came to India to fulfill certain … Read More

Short Notes on Civil Rebellions and Peasant Revolts

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Besides caste and tribal revolts several revolts of civilians or peasants occurred against the British prior to and after the revolt of 1857, which contract the view that the Indians were happy under the British rule. On the contrary, these revolts prove that civilians and peasants were also dissatisfied with the British rule and they expressed their resentment even prior … Read More

Tribal Revolts in Central and Eastern India

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Among revolts during the British period, tribal revolts were most significant. The tribals mostly lived in hills and forests. They subsisted through shifting agriculture, agriculture labour and labour in distant mines, factories etc. Tribal Revolts Commercialisation of agriculture, increasing control over forests for revenue purposes and utilization of forest wealth for the benefit of urban people resulted in penetration of … Read More

Efforts of Gandhi for improving the condition of Lower Castes

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Efforts or Contribution of M.K. Gandhi Ji for improving/uplifting the condition of lower castes The advent of M. K. Gandhi in Indian politics brought the movement of uplifting lower castes to national scene. In 1917, the ‘India Congress’ passed a resolution for removing the disabilities imposed on lower castes. In 1921, the ‘All India Congress’ again appealed to the Hindus … Read More