The Indus Valley Civilization was definitely older than the Vedic Civilization. Whether the two civilizations formed parts of the same civilization is a topic of hot discussion amongst historians. According to a school of scholars the two were of different origins. Some other think that the two civilizations were the same but there timing was widely apart. Whatever it might be, we can easily note the various features which make Indus Valley Civilization distinct from the Vedic. Today we are going to talk about some of the differences between the Indus Valley people and the Vedic people.
Indus Valley Civilization
The ruins of a pre-historic civilization have been discovered at Mohenjodaro (Sindh and Harappa) and, as the places lie in the valley of the river Indus, it has been christened Indus Valley Civilization. Excavations have been carried out at Lothal (Gujarat) in 1953 and a link has been established with the Indus Valley Civilization. It is 5,000 years old and flourished between 3000-1500 B.C. The people of this civilization were Dravidians or proto-Dravidians. It was highly developed urban civilization; possessed modern amenities like underground drainage, well laid-out roads etc. The people had a highly developed artistic sense, which is reflected in their paintings on the vases and the gold ornaments. Their pictorial script has not been deciphered as yet. The people domesticated animals, made use of cotton, and cultivated wheat and barley. Pottery making was a highly developed industry and various artisans viz. carpenters, the stone-cutters and the jewelers piled their trades. The leadership of the community probably belonged to the merchants and industrialists, who procured raw materials from distant places.
The Aryans are supposed to have come to India from Central Asia. They first occupied Punjab. Gradually, they pushed their way along the courses of the Ganges and the Yamuna and conquered the whole of Northern India. Their penetration was a long and slow process. The Indo-Aryans did not conquer to South. They were tall, and fair in complexion, and possessed sharp features. They are responsible primarily for Indian culture and civilization.
Difference between Indus Valley People and Aryans
- The Indus civilization was urban and centred round cities. The early Aryan cultural was rural and centred round villages. The Aryans hated cities and their God, Indra, is called Purandhara or destroyer of cities.
- The Indus Civilization was complex, their people made considerable progress in industrial arts and developed sound economic organisations. The Aryan or Vedic culture was simple and essentially agricultural.
- The Aryans disliked trade and probably did not know the sea; whereas the Indus people were great traders and took part in overseas trade. They travelled by sea and established contact with the outside world.
- The Aryans worshiped the cow, the Indus people, the bull. The Indus people venerated the tiger and elephant, the Aryans venerated the horse, had only little familiarity with the elephant and had no knowledge of the tiger. The Indus people had no knowledge of the horse.
- The Aryans worshiped the male deities, powers of nature and offered sacrifices (Yajna), while the Indus people worshiped the Mother Goddess, snake, trees and animals. They also worshiped images and symbols like Linga. The Aryans were anti-iconists and the worship of the phallus (Linga) was not popular.
- The Aryans had no writing, but the Indus people had developed the art of writing.
- The Aryans were warriors and used long swords and other offensive weapons, the Indus people were lovers of peace and used only defensive weapons.
- The Aryan society was patriarchal while that of the Indus society was matriarchal.
- Aryans used metals but Indus people had no knowledge of iron.